Research Cluster 8

Allocation of functions between human and machine and division of labour between developer and operator: Two perspectives on human-machine systems

Advances in computer technologies led to continuous automation of actions and information-processing functions in safety-critical domains as well as in everyday life. This raises a problem examined today as question of function allocation: which tasks or functions in complex dynamic large-scale systems (e.g. in process control, aviation, military, or hospitals) should be, and to what degree, controlled by automation, which are assigned to the human operator? In other words: How and in respect to which tasks will operator and automation interact in the best possible way?   
This question applies to both the designer of automation as well as the operator who interacts with this automation in real-time. Performance of both groups is central to the research project ATEO (German abbreviation for: Division of Labor between designer and operator). The ATEO project goes beyond traditional approaches on function allocation like comparing strengths weaknesses of humans vs. automation. However, any automation is restricted to the intelligence and experience of its designer. Thus, the key to a safe and efficient cooperation of operator and automation is the question of how (well) designers have supported this cooperation in the beginning.

Accordingly with the ATEO project, we propose a shift from automation to the developer behind the automation. Instead of comparing performance of human vs. machine, humans vs. humans are compared at different points of time:

  • the performance of developers/designers who have to develop automation and anticipate operator's interaction with it
  • the performance of operators/users who interact with this automation in real-time at a later point in time

In previous phases of the ATEO project we examined internal and external resources of designers and operators with their performance using a specifically developed lab system. In the current phase of the project we are interested in concepts of dynamic function allocation where operators and automation can hand over responsibilities for a certain function or task flexibly to one another. Thus, the challenge for designers lies no longer in distributing functions to either operator or automation but in definig rules for their communication and cooperation. Operators in turn need to apply these rules correctly to their interaction with automation and to face changes in workload and situation awareness.The two perspectives on function allocation described above are examined each by a dissertation project. The persepctive on developers/designers of automation is taken by Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj. The perspective of operators/users supervising and control complex automated processes is taken by Dipl.-Psych. Charlotte von Bernstorff.

This Research Cluster is supervised by Prof. Dr. Wandke

Finished PhD Projects:

Currently supervised colleagues/scholarship holders and projects:

Supervised student research projects and diploma theses can be found here.

 

Designer in complex Human-Machine-Systems: Analysis of the influence of designer?s resources on the design process and result

Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain

1st Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Harmut Wandke

The research project presents the described extension of the conventional perspective on human-machine-function allocation (see description of FSP 8). The focus is on designers for assistance systems. From the many potential resources of designers (experience, intelligence, personality, quality of team work = control variable) some were systematically explored in experiments with regards to their meaning for the development process and result: three different groups each with ten teams of three designers received varying forms of information for their design task. The global goal is an empirical comparison between designed assistance functions and the behaviour of operators both originated from optimal characteristics of resources identified in previous studies.

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Comparison between Designers and Operators of complex dynamic processes in human machine systems

Dipl. Inf. Nicolas Niestroj

1st Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Harmut Wandke

The main focus of this dissertation is the comparative study between human operators (see dissertation of Dr. Jens Nachtwei), who were trained to have a high amount of their resource ?information?, and automation specified by designers, which was selected as the best from 30 teams of experienced designers working in the industry and academia (see dissertation of Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain). The resource ?information? was varied over the 30 teams to identify the optimal characteristics and to let the most qualified automatic opponent compete with the human operators.

In another study the resource ?time? is evaluated during a seminar with students giving them more time to design concepts and testing how it affects the quality of concepts. Likewise the impact of work experience on quality is tested in comparison to earlier conducted experiments.

More detailed information

 

About performance and performance determinants of operators interacting with automation: theory and empiricism of cooperative automation

Dipl.-Psych. Charlotte von Bernstorff

1st Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Harmut Wandke

This dissertation is based on an empirical comparison of operators' and automation's (i.e. designer's) performance supervising and controlling the same complex and dynamic process (see dissertation Dr. Jens Nachtwei). Operators will not be compared to automation but will cooperate with automation to supervise and control the process. Modes of cooperative automation will be theoretically and empirically examined. We are interested in changes of performance and work load of the operator due to the cooperative mode compared to its manual supervision and control performance. Effects of different forms of cooperation between human operator and automation (parallel vs. sequential) as well as transitions (human vs. automation-induced) will be tested.  In addition forms of cooperation will be integrated into a theoretical model and be related to existing concepts in reality (e.g. Adaptive Cruise Control, modes of automated flight control)

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Supervised student research projects and diploma theses

current research projects and diploma theses

Erweiterung einer Softwarekomponente für Automatiken zur Systemprozessüberwachung und -führung als Bestanteil einer psychologischen Versuchsumgebung (Diplomarbeit, 2012)
Michael Hasselmann
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain | FSP 8

Konzeption und Realisierung einer optimalen Rückführung in ATEO SAM (Studien- & Diplomarbeit, 2012)
Helmut Weidner-Kim
Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj, Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain | FSP 8

Optimierungsmöglichkeiten der Performance einer softwarebasierten Versuchsumgebung (Bachelorarbeit)
Simon Dullat
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia KainDr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei | FSP 8

 

finished research projects and diploma theses

Klassifizierung, Umsetzung und Testung von Automatiken für regelnde Eingriffe in die Objektsteuerung von SAM (Diplomarbeit, 2013)
Andreas Wickert
Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj, Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain | FSP 8

Fenster zum Prozess: Weiterentwicklung eines Operateursarbeitsplatzes im Projekt Arbeitsteilung Entwickler Operateur (ATEO) (Diplomarbeit, 2013)
Christian Leonhard
Dr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei, Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Entwicklung und Konfiguration von visuellen Anzeigen für die Objektsteuerung im ATEO Projekt (Diplomarbeit, 2012)
Aydan Seid
Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj, Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain | FSP 8

Fehler und deren Vermeidung bei der Programmierung und Konfiguration von Automatiken im ATEO-Projekt (Studienarbeit, 2012)
Andreas Wickert
Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Verhaltensindikatoren von Operateuren zur Evaluation der  Prozessüberwachungs- und -führungsgüte am Beispiel einer simulierten Leitwarte im ATEO Projekt (Diplomarbeit, 2012)
Melanie J.C. Stade
Dr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei, Dipl.-Psych. Charlotte Meyer | FSP 8

Weiterentwicklung und Verbesserung einer Analysesoftware für dynamische Versuchsumgebungen (Diplomarbeit, 2012)
Tobias Hampel
Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Anwendung des IKD zur Ermittlung des Einflusses von sozialen Prozessen auf den Konzeptionsprozess und das Ergebnis (Diplomarbeit, 2012)
Kathrin Dodt
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain| FSP 8

Dokumentation der Entwicklung von Agenten zur Ersetzung der Mikroweltbewohner in der Socially Augmented Microworld (Studienarbeit, 2012)
Louisa Jahn, Martin Schneider
Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj, Dipl.-Psych. Charlotte Meyer | FSP 8

Die Integration von Automatiken in das ATEO-Master Display (AMD) (Diplomarbeit, 2012)
Stefan Schulze
Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj, Dipl.-Psych. Charlotte Meyer | FSP 8

Konzeption und Implementation eines Analysetools zur Auswertung von Logfiles einer komplexen, dynamischen Versuchsumgebung (Studienarbeit, 2012)
Tobias Hampel
Dr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei, Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Erweitern des Logfiles und der Analyse von Logfiles im ATEO Projekt (Studienarbeit, 2012)
Aydan Seid
Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Variabilitätsmanagement im Kontext von software-basierten Experimentalsystemen (Diplomarbeit, 2012)
Alexander Wagner
Dipl.-Inf. Michael Hildebrandt, Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Restrukturierung der Architektur einer weichen Echtzeitanwendung im Kontext von Variabilitätsmanagement (Studienarbeit, 2012)
Alexander Wagner
Dipl.-Inf. Michael Hildebrandt, Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Ein Ereignis-System für das ATEO Automation Framework sowie die Implementierung und Testung von auditiven und visuellen Hinweisen (Diplomarbeit, 2012)
Nikolai Kosjar
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain, Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Integration von Automatiken in das ATEO-Master-Display (AMD) - Machbarkeitsstudie (Studienarbeit, 2012)
Stefan Schulze
Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj, Dipl.-Psych. Charlotte Meyer, | FSP 8

Die Gebrauchstauglichkeit des Automatiken-GUI im Projekt Arbeitsteilung Entwickler Operateur (ATEO) - Analyse und Optimierung (Studienarbeit, 2012)
Nikolai Kosjar
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain, Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Entwicklung künstlicher Agenten für die Socially Augmented Microworld im Projekt ATEO, Teil 1 (Studienarbeit, 2011)
Judith Mütterlein, Sabine Rougk
Dipl.-Psych. Charlotte Meyer, Dipl.-Inf. Nicolas Niestroj | FSP 8

Entwicklung eines GUI für die Konfiguration der Software-Komponente zur Systemprozessüberwachung und -kontrolle in einer psychologischen Versuchsumgebung (Diplomarbeit, 2010)
Esther Fuhrmann
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain | FSP 8

Fenster zum Prozess: Weiterentwicklung eines Operateurarbeitsplatzes im Projekt Arbeitsteilung Entwickler Operateur (ATEO) (Studienarbeit, 2010)
Christian Leonhard
Dr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei, Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain| FSP 8

Determinanten der Leistung von Entwicklern von Automatiken und Assistenzsystemen zur Überwachung und Führung dynamischer technischer Prozesse (Diplomarbeit, 2010)
Anne Rocholl
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain| FSP 8

Fenster zum Prozess ein Operateursarbeitsplatz zur Überwachung und Kontrolle von kooperativem Tracking (Diplomarbeit, 2009)
Herrmann Schwarz
Dr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei, Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain| FSP 8

Entwicklung einer Softwarekomponente zur Systemprozessüberwachung und -kontrolle in einer psychologischen Versuchsumgebung (Diplomarbeit, 2009)
Kai Kesselring
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia KainDr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei | FSP 8

Vernetzung im ATEO Projekt aus inhaltlicher und technischer Sicht (Diplomarbeit, 2009)
Nicolas Niestroj
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain, Dr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei | FSP 8

Rearchitecuring und agile Reimplementation der ATEO-Software (Diplomarbeit, 2009)
Michael Hildebrandt
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia KainDr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei | FSP 8

Analyse und Evaluierung der Architektur des ATEO-Systems (Studienarbeit, 2009)
Michael Hildebrandt
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia Kain, Dr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei | FSP 8

Erweiterung des ATEO-Systems zur Komplexitätserhöhung von SAM (Studienarbeit, 2008)
Nicolas Niestroj
Dipl.-Psych. Saskia KainDr. rer. nat. Jens Nachtwei | FSP 8

ATEO-begleitende Arbeit zur Projektdurchführung (Studienarbeit, 2007)
Maik Burandt
Dipl.-Psych. Barbara-Ulrike Gross, Prof. Dr. Hartmut Wandke | FSP 8

Entwicklung von Assistenzkonzepten unter verschieden ressourcenreichen Bedingungen {$ext.ml_links.fileSymbol} (1.1 MB)
cand.-psych. Steffi Henkel
Dr. rer. nat. Cordula Krinner, Prof. Dr. Hartmut Wandke | FSP 8

Kommunikationsstrategien beim kooperativen Tracking
cand.-psych. Anna Engelbrecht
Dipl.-Psych. Barbara-Ulrike Gross, Prof. Dr. Hartmut Wandke | FSP 8

Personenmerkmale als Kodeterminanten der Komplexität einer belebten Mikrowelt
cand.-psych. Jens Nachtwei
Dipl.-Psych. Barbara-Ulrike Gross, Prof. Dr. Hartmut Wandke | FSP 8